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Mikhail Kalashnikov

Mikhail Kalashnikov

Mikhail Kalashnikov

Mikhail Kalashnikov, the world – famous Soviet and Russian designer of small arms. Mikhail Kalashnikov was born November 10, 1919 in the village Kurya Altai region in a large peasant family.

In 1930, his father and most of his family were deprived of property and deported to the village of Nizhnyaya Mokhovaya, Tomsk Oblast.  In his youth, Mikhail suffered from various illnesses and was on the verge of death at age six.  He was attracted to all kinds of machinery, but also wrote poetry, dreaming of becoming a poet.

In 1936, Mikhail, graduated nine classes of secondary school, returned to Kurya, where he got a job at a machine and tractor station, and then was apprenticed to the depot station Matai Turkestan-Siberian railroad (now the territory of Kazakhstan). Some time later he was transferred to Alma-ATA technical Secretary of the political Department of the 3rd branch of the railroad.

In 1938, Mikhail Kalashnikov was drafted into the red army. After school the drivers of the tank, he passed military service in the Kiev Special military district. In the army he developed the inertial counter to account for the actual number of shots from a tank gun, made a special device for the TT pistol to enhance fire effectiveness through the cracks in the turret of a tank, created a device to account for the service life of the tank engine.

The great Patriotic war (1941-1945) Mikhail Kalashnikov began in August 1941 as a tank commander. In October 1941 battle of Bryansk he was heavily wounded. Being in a six-month leave for health reasons, senior Sergeant Kalashnikov designed his first model of a submachine gun.

The prototype was made at the station Matai in the workshops of the railway depot.

The first Armory of experts evaluated the prototype of the chief of the Artillery Academy Dzerzhinsky, the General-the major Anatoly Blagonravov, which revealed the shortcomings of design, but, noting the talent of a novice developer, recommended to send Kalashnikov to a technical school.

In July 1942, Kalashnikov was sent to scientific testing ground small arms and mortar of the Moscow military district, where the gun passed full-scale tests, but due to the high cost of production and certain shortcomings for service not received.

Until 1944 Kalashnikov, in addition to a submachine gun, a hand gun and self-loading carbine, the weapons these samples are also received.

In 1945 he took part in the competition for the development of the gun with the cartridge of 1943. According to the results of the competition in 1947, the AK-47 was recommended for adoption to the armament of the Soviet army.

In 1948, Mikhail Kalashnikov was sent to a military factory in the city of Izhevsk for the development sample and production of the military party machines. At this time he also worked on the project of a self-loading carbine.

After the successful comprehensive operation of the AK-47 in the army, in early 1949 the government resolution it was adopted, at the Izhevsk machine-building plant was started its mass production. The machine has received the official name — “7.62-mm Kalashnikov sample 1947 (AK)”. In early 1949, Kalashnikov was awarded the order of the red Star and Stalin prize first degree “for the development of weapons”

Mikhail Kalashnikov was known as a designer of machine guns. Among his developments manual machine guns of RPK and RPKS 7.62 mm with folding stock; manual machine guns of RPK-74 and RPKS-74 5.45 mm folding stock. In the beginning of 1960-ies was put into service a sample single machine gun under rifle cartridge 7,62x54r mm.

Just in the design office Kalashnikov created more than hundreds of samples of military weapons.

In the early 1970-ies Kalashnikov was created by the hunting self-loading carbine “saiga”, constructed on the base of the machine.

In 1971 of the totality of the research and development works and inventions without dissertation Kalashnikov was awarded the degree of doctor of technical Sciences.

Lieutenant-General Mikhail Kalashnikov — twice the Hero of Socialist labor, laureate of the Stalin and Lenin prizes. In 2009 the 90th anniversary of the designer of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev awarded Kalashnikov the title of Hero of Russia.

Among the numerous awards Mikhail Kalashnikov – three orders of Lenin, the order “For merits before Fatherland” II degree, order of the October Revolution, Labour red banner, Friendship of peoples, world war I degree, Red Star and other medals.

Kalashnikov was an honorary member (academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academy of missile and artillery Sciences, Russian engineering Academy; full member — academician of the International Academy of Sciences, industry, education and the arts, USA, the International Academy of Informatization, an honorary Professor of Izhevsk state technical University and other major research institutions.

Mikhail Kalashnikov was written several books of memoirs: “Notes designer weapons” (1992), “From someone else’s doorstep to the Spassky gate” (1997), “I travelled with you all the way: a Memoir” (1999), “Kalashnikov: the trajectory of fate” (2004), “In the whirlwind of my life” (2007), “All right, just” (2009). He was a member of the Union of writers of Russia.

 

Kalashnikov’s first submachine gun

Seeing the drawbacks of the standard infantry weapons at the time, he decided to construct a new rifle for the Soviet military. During this time Kalashnikov began designing a submachine gun.[12] Although his first submachine gun design was not accepted into service, his talent as a designer was noticed.[3] From 1942 onwards Kalashnikov was assigned to the Central Scientific-developmental Firing Range for Rifle Firearms of the Chief Artillery Directorate of the Red Army.

In 1944, he designed a gas-operated carbine for the new 7.62×39mm cartridge. This weapon, influenced by the M1 Garand rifle, lost out to the new Simonov carbine which would be eventually adopted as the SKS; but it became a basis for his entry in an assault rifle competition in 1946.

A Type 2 AK-47, the first machined receiver variation

His winning entry, the “Mikhtim” (so named by taking the first letters of his name and patronymic, Mikhail Timofeyevich) became the prototype for the development of a family of prototype rifles.  This process culminated in 1947, when he designed the AK-47 (standing for Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947). In 1949, the AK-47 became the standard issue assault rifle of the Soviet Armyand went on to become Kalashnikov’s most famous invention. While developing his first assault rifles, Kalashnikov competed with two much more experienced weapon designers, Vasily Degtyaryov and Georgy Shpagin, who both accepted the superiority of the AK-47. Kalashnikov named Alexandr Zaitsev and Vladimir Deikin as his major collaborators during those years.

Later career

From 1949, Mikhail Kalashnikov lived and worked in Izhevsk, Udmurtia. He held a degree of Doctor of Technical Sciences (1971)and was a member of 16 academies.

Over the course of his career, he evolved the basic design into a weapons family. The AKM (Russian: Автомат Кала́шникова Модернизированный – Kalashnikov modernized assault rifle) first appeared in 1963, was lighter and cheaper to manufacture owing to the use of a stamped steel receiver (in place of the AK-47’s milled steel receiver), and contained detail improvements such as a re-shaped stock and muzzle compensator. From the AKM he developed a squad automatic weapon variant, known as the RPK (Russian: Ручной пулемет Кала́шникова – Kalashnikov light machine gun).

He also developed the general-purpose PK machine gun (Russian: Пулемет Кала́шникова – Kalashnikov machine gun), which used the more powerful 7.62×54R cartridge of the Mosin–Nagant rifle. It is cartridge belt-fed, not magazine-fed, as it is intended to provide heavy sustained fire from a tripod mount, or be used as a light, bipod-mounted weapon. The common characteristics of all these weapons are simple design, ruggedness and ease of maintenance in all operating conditions.

Approximately 100 million AK-47 assault rifles had been produced by 2009, and about half of them are counterfeit, manufactured at a rate of about a million per year. Izhmash, the official manufacturer of AK-47 in Russia, did not patent the weapon until 1997, and in 2006 accounted for only 10% of the world’s production. This arm became famous due to its reliability in the most extreme climatic conditions, functioning perfectly in the desert as in the tundra. It is in official use by the militaries of 55 nations, and has been so influential in military struggle that it has been used on national flags. Prominent examples include the flags of Mozambique and Hezbollah, as well as the East Timorese and Zimbabwean coats of arms.

Kalashnikov himself claimed he was always motivated by service to his country rather than money, and made no direct profit from weapon production. He did however own 30% of a German company Marken Marketing International (MMI) run by his grandson Igor.  The company revamps trademarks and produces merchandise carrying the Kalashnikov name, such as vodka, umbrellas and knives.  One of the items is a knife named for the AK-74. 

During a visit to the United States in the early 2000s, Kalashnikov was invited to tour a Virginia holding site for the forthcoming American Wartime Museum. The former tanker Kalashnikov became visibly moved at the sight of his old tank in action, painted with his name in Cyrillic.

Death

After a prolonged illness Kalashnikov was hospitalized on 17 November 2013, in an Udmurtian medical facility in Izhevsk, the capital of Udmurtia and where he lived. He died 23 December 2013, at age 94 from gastric hemorrhage. In January 2014 a letter that Kalashnikov wrote six months before his death to the leader of the Russian Orthodox Church, Patriarch Kirill, was published by the Russian daily newspaper Izvestia. In the letter he stated that he was suffering “spiritual pain” about whether he was responsible for the deaths caused by the weapons he created. Translated from the published letter he states, “I keep having the same unsolved question: if my rifle claimed people’s lives, then can it be that I… a Christian and an Orthodox believer, was to blame for their deaths?”

The patriarch wrote back, thanked Kalashnikov, and said that he “was an example of patriotism and a correct attitude toward the country”. Kirill added about the design responsibility for the deaths by the rifle, “the church has a well-defined position when the weapon is defense of the Motherland, the Church supports its creators and the military, which use it.” 

He became one of the first people buried in the Federal Military Memorial Cemetery.

Family

Kalashnikov’s father, Timofey Aleksandrovich Kalashnikov (1883–1930), was a peasant. He completed two grades of parochial school and could read and write. In 1901 he married Aleksandra Frolovna Kaverina (1884–1957), who was illiterate throughout her life. They had 19 children, but only eight survived to adult age; Kalashnikov was born 17th, and was close to death at age six.

In 1930, the government labeled Timofey Aleksandrovich a kulak, confiscated his property, and deported him to Siberia, along with most of the family. The eldest three siblings, daughters Agasha (b. 1905) and Anna and son Victor, were already married by 1930, and remained in Kuriya. After her husband’s death in 1930, Aleksandra Frolovna married Efrem Kosach, a widower who had three children of his own.

Mikhail Kalashnikov married twice, the first time to Ekaterina Danilovna Astakhova of Altai Krai. He married the second time to Ekaterina Viktorovna Moiseyeva (1921–1977). She was an engineer and did much technical drawing work for her husband. They had four children: daughters Nelli (b. 1942), Elena (b. 1948) and Natalya (1953–1983), and a son Victor (b. 1942). Victor also became a prominent small arms designer.

The title to the AK-47 trademark belonged to Mikhail Kalashnikov’s family until 4 April 2016, when the Kalashnikov Concern won a lawsuit to invalidate the registration of the trademark.

Weapon designs

The Russian Medal of Small Arms Maker was introduced in 2008 and named after Kalashnikov.

During his career, Kalashnikov designed about 150 models of small weapons. The most famous of them are:
  • AK-47
  • AKM
  • AK-74 / AKS-74U / AK-74M / AKS-74
  • AK-101 / AK-102
  • AK-103 / AK-104
  • AK-105
  • AK-12
  • RPK / RPK-74
  • PK / PKM / PKP
  • Saiga semi-automatic rifle

Awards and tribute

Mikhail Kalashnikov on a 2014 stamp of the Russian Post.

Incorporates information from the corresponding article in the Russian Wikipedia

  • Recipients of the Order of St. Andrew
  • In 1998, he was awarded an Order of Saint Andrew the Protoclete
  • On his 90th birthday on 10 November 2009, Kalashnikov was named a “Hero of the Russian Federation” and presented with a medal by President Dmitry Medvedev who lauded him for creating “the brand every Russian is proud of”
  • In 2012, Izhevsk State Technical University was named after Kalashnikov
  • On 7 November 2014 a statue of Kalashnikov was unveiled at the Russian 102nd Military Base in Gyumri, Armenia. Armenian Defense Minister Seyran Ohanyan attended the opening ceremony.
  • On 19 September 2017 a 9 metres (30 ft) monument of Kalashnikov was unveiled in Garden Ring, central Moscow.[38] A protester, later detained by police, attempted to unfurl a banner reading “a creator of weapons is a creator of death”.

Russian Federation

Decorations
  • Hero of the Russian Federation (2009)
  • Order of St. Andrew (2008)
  • Order For Merit to the Fatherland, Second Class (1994)
  • Order of Military Merit (Russia) (2004)
Awards
  • State Prize of the Russian Federation in the field of design (1997)
  • Award of the President of the Russian Federation in the field of education (2003)
  • All-Russian Literary Prize of Suvorov (2009)
Honorary diplomas
  • Diploma of the Government of the Russian Federation (1997, 1999)
Medals
  • Jubilee Medal “50 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945”
  • Medal “Symbol of Science” (2007)
  • Gold Medal of Zhukov
  • Medal “For outstanding contribution to the development of the collection business in Russia”
Acknowledgements
  • Gratitude of the President of the Russian Federation (1997, 1999, 2002, 2007)

Soviet

Honours
  • Hero of Socialist Labour (1958, 1976)
  • Order of Lenin (1958, 1969, 1976)
  • Order of the October Revolution (1974)
  • Order of the Red Star (1949)
  • Order of the Patriotic War, 1st Class (1985)
  • Order of the Red Banner of Labour (1957)
  • Order of Friendship of Peoples (1982)
Medals
  • Medal “Hammer and Sickle” (1958,1976)
  • Medal “For Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945”
  • Medal “Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945”
  • Medal “In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin”
  • Jubilee Medal “Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945”
  • Jubilee Medal “Forty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945”
  • Medal “For Distinction in Guarding the State Border of the USSR”
  • Medal “Veteran of Labor” on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR
  • Jubilee Medal “30 years of the Soviet Army and Navy”
  • Jubilee Medal “40 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR”
  • Jubilee Medal “50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR”
  • Jubilee Medal “60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR”
  • Jubilee Medal “70 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR”
  • Medal “In Commemoration of the 800th anniversary of Moscow”
Awards
  • Stalin Prize (1949)
  • Lenin Prize (1964)

Foreign decorations

  • Order of Honour of Belarus (1999)
  • Order of Friendship, First Class (2003)

Other honours

  • the home of Mikhail Kalashnikov in the village he set Courier lifetime bronze bust (1980)
  • the name of the designer named projected prospect in Izhevsk (1994)
  • “Honorary Citizen of the Altai Territory” (1997)
  • Ministry of Economy of Russia award – The sign “of small arms designer Mikhail Kalashnikov” (1997)
  • Union of scientific and engineering organizations and the Government of Udmurtia established an award named after Mikhail Kalashnikov (1999)
  • Diamond company “Alrosa” extracted 29 December 1995 gem diamonds weighing 50.74 carats given the name “designer Mikhail Kalashnikov” (14.5 x 15, 0h15, 5 mm, quality Stones Black) (1999)
  • Mikhail Kalashnikov Cadet School in Votkinsk (2002)
  • Award in his name at the School of Weapon Skills of Izhevsk (2002)
  • Izhevsk State Cultural Institution “Museum of Mikhail Kalashnikov”
  • “Honorary Engineer of Kazakhstan” (Kazakhstan; 2004)
  • Gift from President Hugo Chávez, the highest award of the Republic – a copy of the famous sword of Simon Bolivar, which is a relic of Venezuela and the copy is equal to the highest award of the country (2009)
  • The name of Mikhail Kalashnikov was given to the military department of the Mining Institute in St. Petersburg (2009)
  • Izhevsk State Technical University was awarded the name of Mikhail Kalashnikov (2012)
  • German knife company Boker has dedicated a series to him (2013)
  • The companies that make Kalashnikov rifles, Izhmash and Izhevsk Mechanical Plant were merged and formally renamed Kalashnikov Concern. (2013)

Quotes

  • “I was in the hospital, and a soldier in the bed beside me asked: ‘Why do our soldiers have only one rifle for two or three of our men, when the Germans have automatics?’ So I designed one. I was a soldier, and I created a machine gun for a soldier. It was called an Avtomat Kalashnikova, the automatic weapon of Kalashnikov—AK—and it carried the date of its first manufacture, 1947.”
  • “Blame the Nazi Germans for making me become a gun designer … I always wanted to construct agriculture machinery.”
  • “When a young man, I read somewhere the following: God the Almighty said, ‘All that is too complex is unnecessary, and it is simple that is needed’ … So this has been my lifetime motto – I have been creating weapons to defend the borders of my fatherland, to be simple and reliable.”
  • “I’m proud of my invention, but I’m sad that it is used by terrorists … I would prefer to have invented a machine that people could use and that would help farmers with their work — for example a lawn mower.”
  • “I created a weapon to defend the borders of my motherland. It’s not my fault that it’s being used where it shouldn’t be. The politicians are more to blame for this.”
  • “I sleep well. It’s the politicians who are to blame for failing to come to an agreement and resorting to violence.”

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